LINK: King Zedikiah's and the Prophet Jeramiah's Families Left with the Treasures of Solomon!
Mulek was the son of the King of Judah who was murdered by King Nebuchadnezzar of Babylon. Zarah and Hemla were the daughters of the Prophet Jeramiah. Hence, the Mulekites and the city of Zarahemla as mentioned in the Book of Mormon...
BOOK OF MORMON LANDS
Present day LDS, members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints due to their blind obedience to uninspired, false leaders and FARMS, usually think of Book of Mormon lands, where the people of the Book of Mormon lived, as being in the Mexico-Guatemala-Honduras area of Middle America. But what did God tell Joseph Smith about this?
Millennial Star Article
An article titled "History of Joseph Smith, "in the Mormon newspaper Millennial Star, published in England, had the following to say about the ancient City of Manti (as in the Book of Mormon):
The camp passed through Huntsville, in Randolph County [Missouri], which has been appointed as one of the Stakes of Zion, and is the ancient site of the City of Manti.... [Sept. 1838] (The Latter-day Saints' Millennial Star, "History of Joseph Smith," Vol. 16, page 296, May 13, 1854)
The index of the present Book of Mormon under Manti, Land of, has: "most southerly land of Nephites" and under Manti, City of, it has: "chief city in land of Manti." All this information leads to the conclusion that the Land of Manti is allegedly in the State of Missouri, in the United States. Mormon historian and Apostle Joseph Fielding Smith, in his book Doctrines of Salvation, Volume 3, pages 239-241, came to the same conclusion.
Consistent with the above was a statement Joseph Smith made in a letter dated January 4, 1833 to Mr. N. E. Seaton (Sexton?), the editor of a Rochester, NY newspaper.
The Book of Mormon is a record of the forefathers of our western tribes of Indians;..... (History of the Church, 1:315; Teachings of the Prophet Joseph Smith, page 17.)
A second letter from Smith to Seaton claimed that the first letter was commanded by God.
To N. E. Seaton, Rochester. DEAR SIR;--I was somewhat disappointed on receiving my paper with only a part of my letter inserted in it. The letter which I wrote you for publication, I wrote by the commandment of God, and I am quite anxious to have it all laid before the public, for it is of importance to them . . . (History of the Church, 1:326)
It is important to keep in mind that Smith said that "The Book of Mormon is a record of the forefathers of our western tribes of Indians;....." by the "commandment of God." This was not Smith's conjecture or personal opinion, but by the commandment of God. This helps us understand why Smith said in 1838 that "Huntsville, in Randolph County [Missouri], which has been appointed as one of the Stakes of Zion, and is the ancient site of the City of Manti . . . " The discovery of the bones of Zelph, a "white Lamanite," built on this idea.
The Bones of Zelph, The White Lamanite, and Book of Mormon Lands
The finding of the bones of Zelph, a "white Lamanite," by Joseph Smith in 1834 and the revelation he received about Zelph also speaks to the location of Book of Mormon lands.
On the top of the mound were stones which presented the appearance of three altars having been erected one above the other, according to the ancient order; and the remains of bones were strewn over the surface of the ground. The brethren procured a shovel and a hoe, and removing the earth to the depth of about one foot, discovered the skeleton of a man, almost entire, and between his ribs the stone point of a Lamanitish arrow, which evidently produced his death. Elder Burr Riggs retained the arrow. The contemplation of the scenery around us produced peculiar sensations in our bosoms: and subsequently the visions of the past being opened to my [Joseph Smith's] understanding by the Spirit of the Almighty, I discovered that the person whose skeleton was before us was a white Lamanite, a large, thick-set man, and a man of God. His name was Zelph. He was a warrior and chieftain under the great prophet Onandagus, who was known from the Hill Cumorah, or eastern sea to the Rocky mountains. The curse was taken from Zelph, or, at least, in part - one of his thigh bones was broken by a stone flung from a sling, while in battle, years before his death. He was killed in battle by the arrow found among his ribs, during the last great struggle of the Lamanites and Nephites. (History of the Church, 2:79-80; June 3, 1834).
Note that it was in a vision by the "Spirit of the Almighty" that Smith learned about who Zelph was, his role in the great extermination battle at Hill Cumorah ("last great struggle of the Lamanites and Nephites," Mormon 6:9-15, 8:2-3), how he died and the geography he was associtated with ("known from the Hill Cumorah, or eastern sea to the Rocky mountains," "He was killed in battle by the arrow found among his ribs, during the last great struggle of the Lamanites and Nephites"). This information did not come from Smith's imagination, it was not his opinion, it allegedly came from God.
The finding of Zelph's bones was witnessed by other LDS, as many as 200 men in "Zion's camp" (Encyclopedia of Mormonism, 4:1627). One of them, Elder Kimball, wrote in his journal about this.
According to Elder Kimball's journal, the facts concerning the person whose bones had been found in the ground were not revealed to the Prophet Joseph until the camp had departed from the mound. He says: ‘While on our way we felt anxious to know who the person was who had been killed by the arrow. It was made known to Joseph that he had been an officer who fell in battle in the last destruction among the Lamanites, and his name was Zelph. This caused us to rejoice much, to think that God was so mindful of us as to show these things to His servant. Brother Joseph had inquired of the Lord, and it was made known in a vision.' (History of the Church, 2:footnotes page 80). This affair was not only in Mr. Kimball's journal it was also written up in the Church newspaper, Times and Seasons 6:788.
Note the phrases "revealed to the Prophet Joseph," "made known to Joseph" and "that God was so mindful of us as to show these things to His servant. Brother Joseph had inquired of the Lord, and it was made known in a vision." Smith was not just expressing his opinion, he was describing what God had told him. This adds to our understanding as to why Smith said in 1838 that "Huntsville, in Randolph County [Missouri], which has been appointed as one of the Stakes of Zion, and is the ancient site of the City of Manti . . . "
Where Was Zelph Killed?
According to the History of the Church 2:78-79 Zelph was found buried in a high mound (above the tops of the trees) on the banks of the Illinois River in the State of Illinois. This is not far from present day Florence, Illinois, which is about 75-100 miles north of St. Louis, where route 100 crosses the Illinois River. The mound that Joseph Smith dug into on June 2, 1834 is still there and is one of about 35 bluff top mounds covering about a mile along the river. Archaeologists estimate that it dates from between 50 BC and 50 AD, based upon the style of the artifacts found in it and the age of nearby mounds which have been radiocarbon dated from 50 BC to 250 AD (1) (This is an end note). This dating alone raises significant questions about Zelph's involvement in any Hill Cumorah battles, but this is a different subject.
The "last great struggle of the Lamanites and Nephites" allegedly occurred in 385 AD (Mormon 6:1-15) at Hill Cumorah. If Hill Cumorah was in the Mexico-Guatemala-Honduras area then Zelph would have had to travel roughly 1,800 miles one way to return to the spot where the Mormons found his bones. If Hill Cumorah is near Palmyra, NY, the travel distance would be over 700 miles. While over 700 miles is a long distance in the days of traveling by foot, it is more reasonable than 1,800 miles.
How likely is it that a man who got an arrow between his ribs at Hill Cumorah in the Mexico-Guatemala-Honduras areas, or the Palmyra, NY area, would then travel roughly 1,800 or 700 miles to die? No, the bones of the man Joseph Smith dug up must have been killed near where Smith found him. It does not seem likely that Zelph's friends or comrades carried him to the banks of the Illinois River. They would be looking out for their own lives. Moreover, according to Mormon 6:15 and 8:2, the Nephites as they escaped went southward, not northward from Mexico-Guatemala-Honduras to the banks of the Illinois River roughly 1,800 miles away.
Mormon apostle and historian Joseph Fielding Smith in his book Doctrines of Salvation, Vol.3, pages 232-243 also relates the history about Zelph and provides additional evidence why the Book of Mormon lands are in the continental United States. In addition he says that the Hill Cumorah located in New York State, near Palmyra, NY, is the place where the great extermination battle (Mormon 6:9-15, 8:2-3) took place.
While there is evidence that Joseph Smith later also gave other locations for Book of Mormon lands (Kenneth W. Godfrey, BYU Studies, Vol. 29, No. 2, page 48), none of this sets aside Smith's clear statements allegedly made by the power of God. As a reminder, the following was said, "The Book of Mormon is a record of the forefathers of our western tribes of Indians;....." by the "commandment of God," "revealed to the Prophet Joseph," "made known to Joseph," "that God was so mindful of us as to show these things to His servant. Brother Joseph had inquired of the Lord, and it was made known in a vision" all of which placed Zelph and Book of Mormon lands in the continental United States. While Smith might have changed his mind, there is no evidence that God did.
Why is it so many Mormons (like FARMS) try to place Book of Mormon lands in the Mexico-Guatemala-Honduras area while Joseph Smith by the power of God said they were in the continental United States?
1. From a letter to John Farkas dated February 4, 1993 from the Center for American Archeology, Kampsville Archeological Center, Kampsville, Ill.
John Farkas, Berean Christian Ministries; P.O. Box 1091; Webster, NY 14580
Web page: Mormonism: http://www.frontiernet.net/~bcmmin
Jehovah's Witnesses: http://www.frontiernet.net/~bcmmin/jwstd.htm
The Hopewell tradition (also incorrectly called the "Hopewell culture") is the term used to describe common aspects of the Native American culture that flourished along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern United States from 200 BCE to 500 CE. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society, but a widely dispersed set of related populations. They were connected by a common network of trade routes, known as the Hopewell Exchange System. At its greatest extent, the Hopewell exchange system ran from the Southeastern United States into the southeastern Canadian shores of Lake Ontario. Within this area societies participated in a high degree of exchange with the highest amount of activity along waterways. The Hopewell exchange system received materials from all over the United States. Most of the items traded were exotic materials and were received by people living in the major trading and manufacturing areas. These people then converted the materials into products and exported them through local and regional exchange networks. The objects created by the Hopewell exchange system spread far and wide and have been seen in many burials outside the Midwest.
Although the origins of the Hopewell are still under discussion, the Hopewell culture can also be considered a cultural climax.
Hopewell populations originated in western New York and moved south into Ohio where they built upon the local Adena mortuary tradition. Or Hopewell was said to have originated in western Illinois and spread by diffusion ... to southern Ohio. Similarly, the Havana Hopewell tradition was thought to have spread up the Illinois River and into southwestern Michigan, spawning Goodall Hopewell. (Dancey 114)
The name "Hopewell" was applied by Warren K. Moorehead after his explorations of the Hopewell Mound Group in Ross County, Ohio in 1891 and 1892. The mound group itself was named for the family that owned the earthworks at the time. It is unknown what any of the various groups now defined as Hopewellian called themselves.
Politics and hierarchy
The Hopewell inherited from their Adena forebearers an incipient social stratification. This increased social stability and reinforced sedentism, social stratification, specialized use of resources and probably, population growth. Hopewell societies cremated most of their deceased and reserved burial for only the most important people. In some sites, it appears that hunters received a higher status in the community because their graves were more elaborate and contained more status goods.
The Hopewell culture had leaders, but they were not like powerful rulers who could command armies of slaves and soldiers. It is likely these cultures accorded certain families a special place of privilege. Some scholars suggest that these societies were marked by the emergence of “big-men”. These leaders acquired their position because of their ability to persuade others to agree with them on important matters such as trade and religion. They also perhaps were able to develop influence by the creation of reciprocal obligations with other important members of the community. Whatever the source of their status and power, the emergence of “big-men” was another step toward the development of the highly structured and stratified sociopolitical organization called the chiefdom.
Hopewell mounds from the Mound City Group in Ohio
Today, the best-surviving features of the Hopewell Tradition era are mounds built for uncertain purposes. Great geometric earthworks are one of the most impressive Native American monuments throughout American prehistory. Eastern Woodlands mounds have various geometric shapes and rise to impressive heights. The function of the mounds is still under debate. Due to considerable evidence and surveys, plus the good survival condition of the largest mounds, more information can be obtained.
Several scientists, including Dr. Bradley T. Lepper, Curator of Archaeology, Ohio Historical Society, hypothesize that the Octagon earthwork at Newark, Ohio, was a lunar observatory oriented to the 18.6 year cycle of minimum and maximum lunar risings and settings on the local horizon. Dr. John Eddy completed an unpublished survey in 1978, and proposed a lunar major alignment for the Octagon. Ray Hively and Robert Horn of Earlham College in Richmond, Indiana were the first researchers to analyze numerous lunar sightlines at the Newark Earthworks (1982) and the High Banks Works (1984) in Chillicothe, Ohio. Christopher Turner noted that the Fairground Circle in Newark, Ohio aligns to the sunrise on May 4, i.e. that it marked the May cross-quarter sunrise. In 1983, Christopher Turner demonstrated that the Hopeton Earthworks encode various sunrise and moonrise patterns, including the winter and summer solstices, the equinoxes, the cross-quarter dates, the lunar maximum events, and the lunar minimum events.
William F. Romain has written a book on the subject of "astronomers, geometers, and magicians" at the earthworks.
Many of the mounds also contain various types of burials.
Hand carved in mica by the Hopewell
The Hopewell created some of the finest craftwork and artwork of the Americas. Most of their works had some religious significance, and their graves were filled with necklaces, ornate carvings made from bone or wood, decorated ceremonial pottery, ear plugs, and pendants. Some graves were lined with woven mats, mica (a flaky clear mineral), or stones. The Hopewell produced artwork in a greater variety and with more exotic materials than their predecessors the Adena. Grizzly bear teeth, fresh water pearls, sea shells, sharks' teeth, copper and even small quantities of silver were turned into beautifully crafted pieces. The Hopewell artisans were expert carvers of pipestone, and many of the mortuary mounds are full of exquisitely carved statues and pipes. The Mound of Pipes at Mound City produced over 200 stone smoking pipes depicting animals and birds in well-realized three-dimensional form, and the Tremper Site in Scioto County produced over 130. Some artwork went beyond the ordinary exotic, as Hopewell artists were expert carvers of human bone. A rare mask from Mound City was created using a human skull as a face plate. Hopewell artists created both abstract and realistic portrayals of the human form. One tubular pipe is so realistically portrayed that we can tell the model was an achondroplastic (chondrodystropic) dwarf. Many other figurines give us details of dress, ornamentation, and hairstyles. An example of their abstract human forms is the "Mica Hand" from the Hopewell Site in Ross Co., Ohio. Delicately cut from a piece of mica, more than 11 inches long and 6 inches wide, the hand piece was likely worn or carried for public viewing.
Local expressions of Hopewellian traditions
Aside from the more famous Ohio Hopewell, a number of other Middle Woodland period cultures are known to have been involved in the Hopewell tradition and participated in the Hopewell Exchange Network.
The Armstrong culture were a Hopewell group in the Big Sandy River Valley of Northeastern Kentucky and Western West Virginia from 1 to 500 AD. They are thought to have been a regional variant of the Hopewell tradition or a Hopewell influenced Middle Woodland group who had peacefully mingled with the local Adena peoples. Archaeologist Dr. Edward McMichael characterized them as an intrusive Hopewell-like trade culture or a vanguard of Hopewellian tradition that had probably peacefully absorbed the local Adena in the Kanawha River Valley. It is currently thought that their culture and very Late Adena (46PU2) slowly evolved into the later Buck Garden people.
The Copena culture was a Hopewellian culture in northern Alabama, Mississippi and Tennessee as well as in other sections of the surrounding region including Kentucky. The Copena name is derived from the first three letter of copper and the last three letters of the mineral galena. Copper and galena artifacts are often associated with Copena burials.
Crab Orchard culture
During the Middle Woodland period, the Crab Orchard culture population increased from a dispersed and sparsely settled Early Woodland pattern to one consisting of small and large base camps. These were concentrated on terrace and floodplain landforms associated with the Ohio River channel in southern Indiana, southern Illinois and northwestern and western Kentucky. In the far western limits of Crab Orchard culture is the O'byams Fort site, a large tuning-fork-shaped earthwork reminiscent of Ohio Hopewell enclosures. Examples of a type of pottery decoration found at the Mann Site are also known from Hopewell sites in Ohio (such as Seip Earthworks, Rockhold, Harness, and Turner), as well as from Southeastern sites with Hopewellian assemblages such as the Miner's Creek site, Leake Mounds, 9HY98, and Mandeville in Georgia, and the Yearwood site in southern Tennessee.
The Goodall Focus occupied Western Michigan, Michigan and northern Indiana from around 200 BC to 500 CE. The Goodall pattern stretched from the southern tip of Lake Michigan, east across northern Indiana, to the Ohio border, then northward, covering central Michigan, almost reaching to Saginaw Bay on the east and Grand Traverse Bay to the north. The culture is named for the Goodall site in northwest Indiana.
Havana Hopewell culture
The Havana Hopewell culture were a Hopewellian people in the Illinois River and Mississippi River valleys in Iowa, Illinois, and Missouri. They are ancestral to the groups which eventually became the Mississippian culture of Cahokia and its hinterlands.
The Toolesboro Site is a group of seven burial mounds on a bluff overlooking the Iowa River near where it joins the Mississippi River. The conical mounds were constructed between 100 BCE and 200 CE. At one time, there may have been as many as twelve mounds. Mound 2, the largest remaining, measures 100 feet in diameter and 8 feet in height. This mound was possibly the largest Hopewell mound in Iowa.
Kansas City Hopewell
At the western edge of the Hopewell interaction sphere are the Kansas City Hopewell. The Renner Village Archeological Site in Riverside, Missouri is one of several sites near the junction of Line Creek and the Missouri River. The site contains Hopewell and Middle Mississippian remains. The Trowbridge Archeological Site near Kansas City is close to the western limit of the Hopewell, "Hopewell" style pottery and stone tools, typical of the Illinois and Ohio River Valleys, are abundant at the Trowbridge site and decorated Hopewell style pottery rarely appears further west. The Cloverdale site is situated at the mouth of a small valley that opens into the Missouri River Valley, near St.Joseph, Missouri. It is a multi-component site with Kansas City Hopewell (ca. 100 to 500 CE) and Steed-Kisker (ca. 1200 CE) occupation.
The Laurel Complex was a Native American culture in southern Quebec, southern and northwestern Ontario and east-central Manitoba in Canada and northern Michigan, northwestern Wisconsin and northern Minnesota in the United States. They were the first pottery using people of Ontario north of the Trent-Severn Waterway. The complex is named after the former unincorporated community of Laurel, Minnesota.
The Marksville culture was a Hopewellian culture in the Lower Mississippi valley, Yazoo valley, and Tensas valley areas of Louisiana, Mississippi, Missouri and Arkansas. It evolved into the Baytown culture and later the Coles Creek and Plum Bayou cultures. It is named for the Marksville Prehistoric Indian Site in Marksville, Louisiana.
Miller and Copena cultures
The Miller culture was a Hopewellian culture located in the upper Tombigbee River drainage areas of Southwestern Tennessee, Northeastern Mississippi and West central Alabama, best known from excavations at the Pinson Mounds, Bynum Mounds, Miller Site (type site), and Pharr Mounds sites. The culture is divided chronologically into two phases, Miller 1 and Miller 2, with a later Miller 3 belonging to the Late Woodland period. Some sites associated with the Miller culture, such as Ingomar Mound and Pinson Mounds on its western periphery, built large platform mounds. Archaeologist speculate the mounds were for feasting rituals and that they fundamentally differed from later Mississippian culture platform mounds which were mortuary and substructure platforms.
The Montane Hopewell on the Tygart Valley area, an upper branch of the Monongahela River, of northern West Virginia are similar to Armstrong. The pottery and cultural characteristics are also similar to late Ohio Hopewell. They occurred during the neighboring Watson through Buck Garden period to their south and westerly in the state. Montane Hopwell are of a considerable distance variant from Cole Culture and Peters Phase or Hopewell central Ohio. However, this Hopewellian arrival of a particular small conical mound religion appears to be also waning to the daily living activities at these sites according to Dr McMichael. This period begins a rapid fading away of influence by an elite priest cult burial phase centered towards the Mid-west states.
Ohio Hopewell culture
200 BCE-500 CE
Map of the Archaeological Cultures of Ohio
The greatest concentration of Hopewell ceremonial sites are in the Scioto River Valley (from Columbus to Portsmouth, Ohio) and adjacent Paint Creek, centered on Chillicothe, Ohio. These cultural centers typically contain a burial mound and a geometric earthwork complex that covers ten to hundreds of acres and sparse settlements; evidence of large resident populations is lacking at the monument complexes. The Hopewell Culture National Historical Park, encompassing mounds for which the culture is named, is in the Paint Creek Valley just a few miles from Chillicothe, Ohio. Other earthworks in the Chillicothe area include Hopeton, Mound City, Seip Earthworks and Dill Mounds District, High Banks Works, Liberty, Cedar-Bank Works, Anderson, Frankfort, Dunlap, Spruce Hill, and Story Mound.
Floodwall mural commemorating Portsmouth, Ohio area earthworks
The Portsmouth Earthworks were constructed from 100 BCE to 500 CE. It is a large ceremonial center located at the confluence of the Scioto and Ohio rivers. Part of this earthwork complex extends across the Ohio River into Kentucky. The earthworks included a northern section consisting of a number of circular enclosures, two large horseshoe-shaped enclosures, and three sets of parallel-walled roads leading away from this location. One set of walls went to the southwest and may have linked to a large square enclosure located on the Kentucky side of the Ohio River. Another set went to the southeast where it crossed the Ohio River and continued to the Biggs Site, a complicated circular enclosure surrounding a conical mound. The third set of walls went to the northwest for an undetermined distance, in the direction of the Tremper Site.
Point Peninsula Complex
The Point Peninsula Complex was a Native American culture located in Ontario and New York during the Middle Woodland period, thought to have been influenced by the Hopewell traditions of the Ohio River valley. This influence seems to have ended about 250 CE, after which burial ceremonialism is no longer practiced.
The Saugeen Complex was a Native American culture located around the southeast shores of Lake Huron and the Bruce Peninsula, around the London area, and possibly as far east as the Grand River. There is evidence that the Saugeen complex people of the Bruce Peninsula may have evolved into the Odawa people(Ottawa).
Swift Creek culture
The Swift Creek culture was a Middle Woodland period archaeological culture in Georgia, Alabama, Florida, South Carolina, and Tennessee dating to around 100-700 CE.
The Wilhelm culture (c. AD 1~500), Hopwellian influenced, appeared in the Northern Panhandle of West Virginia. They were contemporaneous to Armstrong central on the Big Sandy valley nearly two hundred miles down stream the Ohio River and surrounded by peoples who made the Watson styled pottery with a Z-twist cordage finished surface. Wilhelm pottery was similar to Armstrong pottery but not as well made. Pipe fragments appear to be the platform base type. Their small mounds of an individual were stone-lined graves (cists) and then they fused several graves together into a single large mound. Little studied is their four reported village sites. These were appear to be gone by C. 500 AD. Today, new local resources are looking at this area period and may provide future insight.
Sinnissippi Mounds, Sinnissippi Park, Sterling, Illinois
Around AD 500 the Hopewell Exchange ceased, mound building stopped, art forms were no longer produced. War is a possible cause, as villages dating to the Late Woodland Period shifted to larger communities and were fortified with walls and ditches. Colder climatic conditions could have also driven animals north or west, as weather would have a detrimental effect on plant life, drastically cutting the subsistence base for these foods. It's also possible the introduction of the bow and arrow caused stress on already depleted food populations. Just the same, the breakdown in societal organization could have been a result of full-scale agriculture. Scholars Dunnell and Greenlee suggest an idea of waste behavior. "They argue that energy was diverted from biological reproduction during a period when climate irregularities favored small families. As climate became predictable from year to year, energy was turned from waste behavior to food production" (Dancey 131). Still, the true reason for their evident dispersal is yet to be discovered, and much more knowledge is needed.
Early Woodland period
200 BCE-500 CE
A. Martin Byers and DeeAnne Wymer, eds. Hopewell Settlement Patterns, Subsistence, and Symbolic Landscapes (University Press of Florida, 2010); 400 pages
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